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Macedonia Geography
 
 
 

General

Macedonia is a landlocked nation located in southeastern Europe. Macedonia is slightly larger than the state of Vermont with a total area of 25,333 sq km (9,781 sq mi). Macedonia shares boundaries with Serbia and Montenegro (north), Bulgaria (east), Greece (south), and Albania (west), and has a total boundary length of 766 km (476 mi). Macedonia's capital city, Skopje, is located in the northwestern part of the country.

The topography of Macedonia features a mountainous landscape covered with deep basins and valleys. There are two large lakes, each divided by a frontier line. Approximately 24% of Macedonia's land is arable. Natural resources include chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulphur, and timber. Macedonia's natural environment suffers from a high seismic hazard and air pollution from metallurgical plants.

Macedonia has a transitional climate from Mediterranean to continental. The summers are hot and dry and the winters are moderately cold. Average annual precipitation varies from 1,700 mm (67 inches) in the western mountainous area to 500 mm (20 inches) in the eastern area. There are three main climatic zones in the country: temperate Mediterranean, mountainous and mildly Continental. Along the valleys of the Vardar and Strumica rivers, in the regions of Gevgelija, Valandovo, Dojran, Strumica and Radovish the climate is temperate Mediterranean. The warmest regions are Demir Kapija and Gevgelija, where the temperature in July and August frequently exceeds 40°C (104°F). The mountainous climate is present in the mountainous regions of the country and it is characterised by long and snowy winters and short and cold summers. The spring is colder than the fall. The majority of Macedonia has a moderate continental climate with warm and dry summers and relatively cold and wet winters. There are 30 main and regular weather stations in the country.

Overview

Location
Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Geographic coordinates
41 50 N, 22 00 E

Map references
Europe

Area
total: 25,333 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
water: 477 sq km

Area - comparative
slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries
total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Kosovo 159 km, Serbia 62 km

Coastline
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims
none (landlocked)

Climate
warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Terrain
mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River

Elevation extremes
lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m

Natural resources
low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land

Land use
arable land: 22.01%
permanent crops: 1.79%
other: 76.2% (2005)

Irrigated land
550 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources
6.4 cu km (2001)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total: 2.27
per capita: 1,118 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards
high seismic risks

Environment - current issues
air pollution from metallurgical plants

Environment - international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note
landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

 

 
 


 



 


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